Types of Edits

My goal is to help authors convey their message as clearly and compellingly as possible. While I offer three main kinds of editing for fiction and nonfiction book manuscripts, we may discover that you need more than one type – or a combination of types. Our common goal is simple: presenting your writing in clear, concise, and engaging language.


This acronym represents a review of punctuation, usage, grammar, and spelling – the most basic elements of writing. In this review, I am not interested in stylistic choice; your original prose remains intact as much as possible! This level is appropriate for authors unsteady in their command of basic English grammar, or authors for whom English is not their first language. It also serves as the most basic starting point for any type of edit.


While ensuring all elements of PUGS are reviewed, this edit focuses on promoting clarity and flow in both sentences and paragraphs. More substantial changes may be needed to ensure straightforward, graceful, and concise phrasing with smooth transitions and appropriate use of voice and perspective.

For academic papers, I work to retain your ideas while creating “readability” for those readers who may not be familiar with your specialty. I am familiar with the most preferred academic writing styles, such APA, Chicago, MLA, Harvard, etc.

Authors looking for this level of editing may be:

  • Comfortable with their ideas, but needing better flow and clarity
  • Without enough time to edit their own work to the level they desire
  • Non-native speakers who want their work to read as if it were written by a native American English speaker


At times, grammatical and in-depth edits aren’t enough – something is missing in terms of argument, content, and organization. Lingering questions may require casting a wider net and gathering more expansive feedback:

  • Am I calling enough attention to my main argument? How might it be better highlighted?
  • Does my manuscript lack organization? Do timelines make sense, or is my nonlinear approach too distracting?
  • What do I gather from – and respond to – in terms of feedback from editors or other reviewers?
  • Are there sections of my work needing further development? Are there parts that need to be cut or condensed?
  • What’s working? What’s not working? How do I fix this?

When you are uncertain about your written work’s main direction or purpose, I can help provide a fresh perspective. Once we determine the proper direction to take, I will refine the content, structure, organization and phrasing to best achieve that purpose.

Authors looking for this level of editing may be:

  • Confident in their ideas, but unsure if the manuscript is presenting those in the most compelling and clear way possible
  • Unable to get thoughtful feedback from colleagues because they are too busy, or are hesitant to ask
  • Feeling overwhelmed or burdened by the solitary nature of writing. They may have been grappling with the manuscript for a while, revising repeatedly, and now need a professional outside perspective.

You may be uncertain which type of edit you want – or need.

Evaluating your needs is an important part of my service, providing a powerful starting point for our relationship. For this reason, I always ask for a substantial portion of your manuscript – all, if possible – to review. This helps me effectively assess your writing style and provide a fair estimate of both time and cost for your project. Manuscript evaluation carries a flat fee of $60 for the first 30K words, with an additional .005 for each word over 30K. This full amount will be credited against the edit cost at the time of final payment.

If you would like to discuss your project, please email me! We can then arrange a time to converse further via email, messaging, or via phone.